Armenians in Jerusalem: The Politics of Survival in the Holy Land


The Armenians of Jerusalem form one of the oldest Armenian communities outside of Armenia. The Armenian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem may be one of the most Armenian places in the world, too.

But this community is more than just old and Armenian. The community also controls, through the Armenian Church, at least a part of every major Christian Holy Site in the region, including the birthplace and crucifixion of Jesus, and the Tomb of the Virgin Mary.

With such a rich cultural legacy, one might guess that the Armenians of Jerusalem are strong and thriving. They are not. If the Old City were divided up today, the Armenians might barely command one street. They certainly would not lay claim to an entire Quarter, as they have for centuries.

The survival of the community is today in peril. The population is dwindling. Armenian property rights are under attack. Even Armenian pilgrims are fewer in number.

Matthew Karanian—a Pasadena lawyer and the author of several books about Armenia—traveled to Jerusalem earlier this year as part of a research and photography project. Karanian is the co-author, with Robert Kurkjian, of the best-selling travel guide Armenia and Karabagh: The Stone Garden Guide. This article is one in a series about the Jerusalem Armenians that Karanian has written and photographed for Asbarez.


Armenians have 17 centuries of history in the Holy Land, and they share or own most of the major Christian sites, including the sites where Jesus was born, crucified, and buried.

There’s also a distinct geographical area in the historic walled city of Jerusalem known as the Armenian Quarter.

This should be enough to make any Armenian feel proud. But after I had spent several days living among the Armenians of this sacred Armenian place, those 17 centuries of history instead felt like they were crushing down on me. I felt as weary as if I had been breathing too much church incense.

The Holy Land induces awe and inspiration for some. I felt this, too. I was awed. And I was inspired.

But as I became increasingly aware of the greatness of the Armenian legacy here, I also became increasingly aware that the survival of this legacy is in peril.

George Hintlian is a Jerusalem historian and a prominent member of the Armenian community. He had been my introduction to the Armenian community when I arrived earlier this year.

He sensed that I had become weary, rather than uplifted, by all that I was seeing and learning about the Armenians of Jerusalem. “This place doesn’t work only by prayer,” he said. “There’s a lot of politics.”

Unfortunately, the politics appear to be working against the Armenians. This “politics,” I feared, could one day turn the Armenian Quarter into another Aghtamar—another sacred gem of Armenian culture that is now just a “museum” that’s owned and operated by others.


The walled Old City of Jerusalem has a dense population of nearly 40,000 living in an area of less than one square kilometer.

The Armenian Quarter occupies one-sixth of this tiny walled-city, yet it has a population of only about 500 Armenians. As a result, the Quarter is a highly coveted piece of real estate. The other quarters are bursting with residents who need more room. This is especially true for the Jewish Quarter, which is adjacent to the Armenian Quarter.

“The Israelis want to take over the Armenian Quarter,” says Hintlian. Worshippers headed to the Western Wall—sometimes also called the Wailing Wall—often pass through the public streets of the Armenian Quarter. “Every day they see what we have,” he says. “They want it.”

These worshippers frequently walk directly past the home and office of Kevork Nalbandian, an attorney with a law practice in the Armenian Quarter.

Nalbandian says he is also concerned about the future of the Armenian community. “We already live in a museum,” he says, alluding to the dwindling Armenian population. “Twenty years from now, how many of us will there be?” he asks.

There had been 35,000 Armenians—some say more—in the region prior to 1948. There are about 2,000 in the region today, of whom 500 live in the Armenian Quarter of the Old City.

The population decline has several causes. Finding work is difficult, especially for educated professionals. This forces many of the most highly educated Armenians to leave Israel. Job prospects are better for an Armenian who wants to operate his own office, or work as a merchant.

So, an Armenian can make a living selling jewelry or ceramics, says Hintlian, but careers in the professions are scarce. This is because the politics of the region dictate that Arabs hire Arabs and Jews hire Jews, he says.

There’s also the intangible difficulty of simply living in Jerusalem. “People are psychologically crushed,” says Hintlian. Israeli policies—Hintlian calls it “harassment”—work to encourage Armenians to leave. And, government policy also prevents immigration to Israel by Armenians, he says. The “Law of Return,” the law that guarantees to Jews anywhere in the world the right to immigrate to Israel, also prevents immigration by non-Jews. The result is a community that cannot sustain itself, and that can only shrink.


For centuries, groups have competed for control of the region’s holy sites.

These groups, including the Armenian Church, have fought—sometimes literally—for the right to hold religious rites at places such as the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, and at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. These are the sites where many in the Christian community believe that Jesus was born, crucified, and buried.

In an effort to impose law and order on the religious groups, the Ottoman Empire negotiated a so-called “Status Quo” agreement with them back in 1852. The Ottomans were sovereign over Jerusalem and much of the Middle East at the time.

This agreement dictated that the ownership and rights status that existed for each of the holy sites in 1852 would be the set of rights that would exist in perpetuity. This agreement remains in effect today and is enforced by the Israelis in Jerusalem, and by the Palestinians in Bethlehem.

Negotiating this Status Quo agreement was one of the benevolent acts of the Ottomans during their four centuries of rule in the Holy Land. It has been effective in allowing the Armenians to continue to control or share ownership of most of the major Christian holy sites today. The Greek and Catholic churches are the only other religious groups that rival the Armenians in their extent of ownership and control of Christian Holy Land shrines.

Father Goruin is a member of the St. James Armenian Brotherhood. He became a priest in the Armenian church at age 23, and this year, at age 30, he was elevated to the rank of Vartabed.

The Armenian Church is able to maintain control of these sites because it has been strong over the centuries, says Father Goruin. “And the church can only be strong if there is a large community,” he says.

There are today about 100 students enrolled in the Quarter’s Armenian elementary school. This school, Saint Tarkmanchatz, or The Holy Translators, was established in 1929 and the success of its pupils is one of the keys to the survival of the community, he says.

If the community survives, it will be able to help the Armenian Church maintain its co-stewardship of sites such as the Tomb of St. Mary, as well as the Church of the Ascension, the Church of the Nativity, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Each of these shrines is built upon the site of a significant event in the life and death of Jesus.

The Tomb of St. Mary is where the Virgin Mary was laid to rest before she ascended to heaven.

The Church of the Ascension is built on the hilltop outside the city walls of Jerusalem where Jesus ascended to heaven.

The Church of the Nativity is built atop the site in Bethlehem where Jesus was born.

And the Church of the Holy Sepulcher occupies the sites within the Old City of Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified and was anointed and laid to rest.

The Armenian Church either shares ownership of these sites, or shares the right to hold religious services there, with either Greeks, or Catholics, or both. “When you consider how few Armenians there are in the world, and how many Latins [Catholics] there are, it’s extraordinary that our rights are the same or greater than theirs,” says Hintlian.

There are several additional significant religious sites that are owned or controlled by the Armenian Church, as well.

At the moment, the more immediate focus of the community is on preserving the building and the sacred relics of the St. James Cathedral, which forms the heart of the Armenian Compound within the Armenian Quarter.

The current edifice of St. James dates back to the twelfth century, and it contains a treasure trove of artwork and priceless antiquities. The monastery of St. James is even older, having been established in the fourth century by St. Gregory the Illuminator.

It was here, on a recent afternoon, that Archbishop Nourhan Manoogian of the Armenian Patriarchate presided over the elevation of four priests—four members of the St. James Brotherhood—to the rank of Vartabed. The cathedral was alight only with the flames of candles and oil-fed lamps. The mood was mystical, and the community had turned out in large numbers to witness this rare and sacred rite of the church.

Thirty students from the St. James Convent, all of them young men, filled the gallery and sang hymns from the pages of books that were lighted only by candles. There was no other music—no organ, no choir—except the singing and chanting of these 30 young men.

Back in the 1930s, the military governor of Jerusalem, Ronald Storrs, had famously stated that the Cathedral of St. James “embodies the misery and the glory of the Armenian nation.” On this evening, I understood only the glory.


Matthew Karanian traveled to Jerusalem earlier this year as part of a research and photography project documenting the Armenian community and the Old City’s Armenian Quarter. His Jerusalem photography will be included in a large format photography book to be released in 2012 with co-author Robert Kurkjian.

Karanian practices law in Pasadena, Calif., and is a former Associate Dean and member of the law faculty at the American University of Armenia in Yerevan. He is also the co-author with Kurkjian of several books about Armenia, including the best-selling photo-based travel guide Armenia and Karabagh: The Stone Garden Guide. This book is available from Borders, from Armenian booksellers in Glendale, and from the online bookseller

Karanian’s photography has appeared in such magazines as CNN Traveler, Photo Life, and Photo District News (PDN). He has photographed leaders such as former Presidents Bill Clinton and Robert Kocharian, in the Oval Office of the White House, and several Miss Armenia beauty queen.


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  1. Chris Manougian said:

    Who told the Armenian Jerusalemits to leave the country 40 ,50 years ago .Do you think they care ?
    If their was love Unity caring and less poisoning each other ,today we would have been stronger ,

    • rina said:

      I agree that Armenian professionals can find work in Israel but may have felt uncomfortable in the earlier, less developed Israel of 50 years ago. Many Jewish Israelis left, too. It would be good to see the diaspora Armenian community gather together to send money for the kind of building the Jewish areas have experienced. It just seems that Armenians are not coming together; they are distracted by the pull of Armenia, of Turkey and of the communities in Europe and the Middle East. The Jewish Israelis may be too single minded in their focus on providing a Jewish homeland. Armenians might be not focused enough.

    • ara said:

      most of the Christians and even Arabs left for the housing and jobs problems ..the same problem steal there

  2. ArdeVast Atheian said:

    There is no reason the local Armenians should not be able to find work in Israel just as there is no reason to bar Armenians from immigrating to Israel when they want to join their own Armenian community in Jerusalem, as they have done for seventeen centuries.
    We should first petition the Israeli government. There is every reason for them to grant those basic rights. If not we could threaten to shame them in the world opinion if they continued these ethnic cleansing policies that they themselves have suffered from in so many countries and continents.

  3. Rita said:

    Armenians of Jerusalem and holy land survived through byzantines, persians, muslims, crusader, mongol, etc. in all these times we maintained ourselves and property and grew in population and only under jews there is armenians being cleansed and property stolen.

    israel does not want armenians there, they want to expand jewish quarter and get rid of armenian, every day jewish settler try to harass the armenians to leave

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  6. Garo Kapikian said:

    All of you have made excellent points. The main problem in Armenian
    Jerusalem has been a lack of true leadership. We have not had a great
    Patriarch since Guregh Israelian.

  7. Sam said:

    the supply of Jarankavors is drying out, the community is dwindling and yet we bury our head in the sand and cling to tradition mradition, my suggestions is this, let priests get married have many children and fill the void,
    the haredi orthodox jews have large families the muslims have larger families and yet we do not learn
    a married priest will be a better priest, Amen

  8. Moises Soriano said:

    Oh!, it was a surprise for me. I was a fan of Armenian culture but I didn’t know Armenians were against us, Jews. It’s good to know. Very sad

    • Rev. Dr. Gary Shahinian said:

      It is the other way around, my friend. The Israeli Government puts all kinds of obstacles in the way of the Armenians of Jerusalem. In addition, the ultra-orthodox and Yeshiva students routinely harass Armenian clergy and desecrate Armenian property. Young Armenians who live on the grounds of the Patriarchate find few opportunities in education or employment in the Old City of Jerusalem. Those who go abroad for a university education find upon their return that they have lost their residency rights, despite the fact that they were born in Jerusalem and their families have been living in Jerusalem for centuries. I strongly suggest that you educate yourself on what is really happening to the Armenians in Jerusalem.

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