The Hemshin: A Community of Armenians Who Became Muslims

The Hemshin: History, Society and Identity in the Highlands of Northeast Turkey
Edited by Hovann H. Simonian

A Book Review by Aram Arkun

Armenians love nothing more than to debate what constitutes an Armenian, but nearly all Armenians would insist that one of the major components of Armenian identity is Christianity. Yet today more and more is heard about Muslim Armenians and crypto or secret Armenians. The very existence of Muslim Armenians in particular raises interesting questions about what is fundamentally Armenian, especially when there are Muslims who speak Armenian and preserve and practice various elements derived from Armenian culture and tradition. The Hemshin, also called Hemshinli, include both Muslims and Christians, and speakers of dialects of Armenian as well as those who only speak versions of Turkish or other non-Armenian languages influenced by the Armenian language. They have a long and complicated history, during much of which they lived in isolation from mainstream Armenian society and faced great oppression, and they themselves have conflicting notions concerning their identity. Today numbering as many as 150,000 according to some estimates, they live in Turkey, Russia, and Georgia, as well as in some diaspora communities in the west. Not much has been written about the Hemshin in English, so the volume edited by Hovann Simonian provides a welcome introduction.

This book, focusing on the Hemshin living in Turkey, consists of chapters written by writers from a diverse group of disciplines and nationalities. A second volume is projected for publication on the Hemshin in the Caucasus and the rest of the former Soviet Union, and that volume will include a general bibliography.

Anne Elizabeth Redgate’s introductory chapter examines Armenian historical sources on the origins of the Hemshin. The seventh-century Arab invasions of Armenia led to a period of harsh treatment of occupied Armenian territories in the subsequent century. According to the Armenian writer Ghewond’s History, part of the Armenian leadership, including the Amatuni clan, rebelled, leading to the emigration of Shapuh Amatuni, his son Hamam, and many companions circa A.D. 790. They founded a new principality in the Byzantine-controlled Pontos, northwest of Armenia proper. Its capital was named Hamamashen after Hamam, and this word was later transformed into Hamshen, and used for the whole area.

Historical Hamshen lies between the Pontic mountain chain in the south and the Black Sea to the north, today part of the Turkish province of Rize. Hemshinli also live further to the east in Artvin province of Turkey in the region around Hopa. Unlike their Laz neighbors, the Hemshin tend to live among the higher mountains, not immediately around the coast. Thanks to the Pontic mountains overlooking the Black Sea, Hamshen is not only fairly inaccessible, but also one of the most humid areas of Turkey, with an average of 250 days of rain per year creating a semi-tropical climate. A quasi-permanent fog covers the area. The Armenians there were always in close proximity to the sea, even when their political borders did not quite reach it.

Hovann Simonian, both editor and contributor, in the next chapter quickly reviews the same Armenian historical sources as Redgate, and dismisses two alternate hypotheses concerning the origins of Hamshen—that refugees from the fall of the Armenian capital of Ani in 1064 were its founders, and that after the initial arrival of the Amatunis, a sparse local Tzan population was Armenized by migrants from Ispir and Pertakrag to the south.

Much of the history of this area lies in obscurity. Between the late eighth and early fifteenth centuries, there are only two extant mentions of Hamshen, so that one can only suppose that the principality of Hamshen survived as a vassal of the larger powers around it, Armenian, Byzantine, Georgian, and Turkic. Armenian manuscripts from the fifteenth century reveal that it had become a principality subservient to the Muslim lord of Ispir to the south, as well as to an overlord, Iskander Bey of the Kara Koyunulu Türkmen confederation. Ispir, exclusively Armenian until the seventeenth century, was Hamshen’s only neighbor sharing a population adhering to the Church of Armenia. The other Christians in the area were Orthodox Chalcedonians. Hamshen fell to the Ottomans in the late 1480s, with its last ruler, Baron Davit (David) exiled to Ispir. The most famous member of the Armenian ruling family of Hamshen was the vardapet Hovhannes Hamshentsi, an eminent scholar and orator who died in 1497.

Hamshen became called Hemshin in early Ottoman documents, where it was noted as a separate district or province. It was subject to the devshirme, or child levy, in the sixteenth century.

In the third chapter, Christine Maranci examines manuscript illumination in Hamshen, which, together with scribal activity, extended from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries. A wide variety of texts were copied, demonstrating that Hamshen was a significant intellectual center even in the sixteenth century, often considered a “Dark Age” for medieval manuscript illumination.

In his second chapter for this volume, Hovann Simonian traces the process of Islamicization in Hemshin to the end of the nineteenth century. Simonian does a good job of utilizing at times contradictory or obscure Armenian and Turkish sources to better understand how this process.

Ottoman records show that Hemshin was overwhelmingly Christian until the late 1620s. Starting in the 1630s the Hemshin Armenian diocese entered a decline, while one of the first mosques in the area was built in the 1640s. Conversion to Islam seems to have progressively taken place, not abruptly and at once. However, it is not known whether there were particular episodic periods of crisis in which conversion accelerated. The need for equality with Laz Muslim neighbours, the desire to avoid oppressive taxation of non-Muslims, increasing general Ottoman intolerance of non-Muslims in a period of weakness for the Ottoman Empire, and anarchy created by local valley lords are some of the causes of Islamicization. Islam took root in the coastal areas first, and then advanced gradually to the highlands.

Emigration of Armenians also took place during this period of pressure on Armenians from the 1630s to the 1850s, though fugitives who fled to other parts of the Pontos were still often forced to convert. Simonian looks at the killings, violence, and other difficulties faced by the Hemshin Armenian communities of Mala, Karadere, and Khurshunlu.

Christians still persevered, though small in number, in Hemshin at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Members of the new Muslim majority produced a large number of Islamic clerics, civil servants, and military leaders for the Ottoman Empire in the late nineteenth century. These emigrants to large Ottoman urban centers all bore the epithet Hemshinli. During the centuries of conversions, odd situations were created. Mothers in some families remained Christian in belief, while fathers became Muslim; one brother might have converted to Islam, and another remained Christian. Furthermore, a type of crypto-Christians called gesges (half-half) was formed. These Hemshin Armenians only outwardly converted, but privately kept practicing various Christian customs, even sometimes including attending church services. This category of Armenians largely died out by the end of the nineteenth century.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, Ottoman proclamations of religious equality as part of the Tanzimat reform efforts led some Muslim Hemshin in the broader area to try to convert back to Christianity. This in turn led to a reaction by Muslim preachers and the opening of Turkish schools in the area. The pressure by local authorities, combined with new opportunities in Muslim Ottoman society for economic and social advancement, led to the loss of the ability to speak the Armenian language for most Hemshin Armenians. However, Armenian influenced the type of Turkish spoken by the Hemshin through vocabulary, phrase structure, and accent. The Muslim Hemshin developed their own unique group identity, and managed to maintain this to the present.

By 1870, according to Ottoman statistics, confirmed by the British consul in Trebizond, there were only twenty-three Christian Armenian families in Hemshin, and the remaining 1,561 families were Muslim.

Alexandre Toumarkine writes about the Ottoman political and religious elites among the Hemshin from the mid-nineteenth century until 1926, with information about specific individuals and families. The Hemshinli, like the rest of the people of their area of the Black Sea, supported Atatürk initially, but entered into the camp of the opposition during the early years of the new Turkish republic. The chief organizer of the failed 1926 plot to assassinate Atatürk was a Hemshinli named Ziya Hurşid, and four other Hemshinli were also accused of being involved. In an epilogue, Toumarkine notes that a number of contemporary politicians have Hemshinli origins, including Mesut Yılmaz, prime minister between 1997 and 1998, and Murat Karayalçın, deputy prime minister from 1993 to 1995.

In his third chapter, Simonian focuses on the 1878-1923 period and the interaction of Muslims of Armenian background and Armenians. The district of Hopa, adjacent to Hemshin, was occupied by the Russians as a result of the 1877-78 Russo-Turkish War. The approximately 200 households of Islamicized Hemshinli Armenians in Hopa proved their complete adherence to Islam by not reverting to Christianity under Russian Christian rule, unlike other Armenian converts.

Part of the responsibility for the distancing between Christian and Islamicized Armenians was due to Armenians themselves. The Armenian Church did not attempt to actively work with the Muslim Hemshinli, perhaps fearing problems with the Ottoman state authorities. However, even in the Russian Empire, the Armenian Church made no effort to try to proselytize among converted Armenians, and, in some cases, actually created new obstacles in the path of those Islamicized Armenians who wanted to revert to Christianity. At the same time, even relatively progressive secularist thinkers like Grigor Artsruni could not accept as Armenians any Muslims like the Hemshin unless they first converted their religion.

Muslims of Hemshin were hired by the Catholic Armenians of neighbouring Khodorchur to the south, the last district of Ispir still populated by Christians, as guides for travelers, guards, and as seasonal workers. Despite these generally friendly relations, some Hemshinli Muslims who engaged in banditry also periodically attacked the Khodorchur Catholic Armenians. During World War I, some Hemshinli and other Muslims of Armenian descent robbed their Khodorchur Armenian neighbors and took over their properties. The last Christian Armenian village in Hemshin, Eghiovit (Elevit) was destroyed, with its population deported and killed. After the war, Khodorchur was partially repopulated by Hemshinli.

In Hopa and more particularly in Karadere Valley and regions closer to Trebizond, Islamicized Armenians helped Christians instead of robbing them.

Some Hemshinli during the war were mistaken for Armenians because of their language and killed. During the Russian occupation of the area from 1916 to 1918, there were no recorded instances of reversion to Christianity among the Islamicized Armenians and Greeks.

Hagop Hachikian has a chapter on the historical geography and present territorial distribution of the Hemshinli, examining toponyms and historical sources to ascertain where and when settlements were established. Interestingly, Hemshinli Armenians settled in areas around the western Black Sea in various waves of emigration beginning immediately prior to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. Emigration to this area continued in the period of the Turkish republic, with Hemshinli usually either settling in separate quarters of villages, or establishing monoethnic villages. Hemshinli continued to migrate, with diaspora communities of thousands now existing in Germany and the United States

Meanwhile, thousands of village names that were found to have non-Turkish roots were changed by 1959, adding to the changes in names taken from the start of the twentieth century under the Young Turks. This eliminated many of the originally Armenian names of the Hemshinli villages.

Erhan Gürsel Ersoy writes about the present-day social and economic structures of the Hemshin people living in Çamlıhemşin in Rize province from the perspectives of cultural ecology. Houses are in the middle of agricultural land, so that villages have no real center and houses are dispersed over wide expanses. Ersoy looks at recent attempts at modernization of infrastructure in the region, including the building of some roads and the advent of telephones and electricity in the 1980s and 1990s. Emigration of men in the Hemshin area took place in the early nineteenth century to the Caucasus and Balkans, as well as to the large Ottoman cities. Within the Republic of Turkey, this continued in modern times, with Hemshinli owning a large number of the patisseries and bakeries in large cities and towns such as Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir, as well as many tea houses, coffee shops, restaurants, taverns, hotels and cafeteria. Though it is a patriarchal society, because so many men migrate to the towns, a high number of women serve as the de facto heads of their households. The rural extended family structure has been breaking up. Locally most households still subside on agriculture and the keeping of livestock. The women do most of the agricultural work and keeping of livestock.

Gülsen Balıkçı examines western Hemshin folk architecture in three villages of the Rize area. Like many traditional Armenian homes, the stable for animals is located at the ground floor at the back of the house. People live on the second floor, and there is a third floor too. An outdoor toilet is near the stable. Baths are taken either in the stable or near the oven inside the house. A fountain is built near the back entrance, and water is brought into the house through a hose. Food that will be used shortly is hanged in cloth bags from the ceiling to protect against mice and insects. A number of auxiliary buildings or structures are placed next to the house. Most important of these is a raised storage platform on posts called the serender, in which food was kept for long periods.

Bert Vaux explains that the language of the Armenians of Hamshen depended on their location. The western Hemshinli living in the Turkish province of Rize speak Turkish peppered with Armenian words, while the eastern Hemshinli in the province of Artvin speak a dialect of Armenian they call Homshetsma. Non-Islamicized Hamshen Armenians who live in Russia and Georgia speak the same dialect. Homshetsma, never a written language, developed in isolation. Thus, it preserves various archaisms, along with developing some idiosyncrasies. Homshetsma belongs to the Western Armenian family of dialects. Vaux provides some short texts in eastern and northern Homshetsma dialects as appendices to his overview. Uwe Bläsing, the author of two monographs concerning the Hemshin dialect, provides an overview of the Armenian vocabulary still used by the now Turkish-speaking western Hemshinli.

Hagop Hachikian examines aspects of the Hemshin identity. Two distinct Hemshinli identities exist—Rize and Hopa, or west and east, with both geographical and linguistic separation. Aside from differences in language, the Hemshinli of Hopa do not use the traditional head covering of those of Rize. Those in the west still observe a festival of Armenian pagan origin known as Vartevor or Vartivor (Vartavar in Armenian—transformed through Christianization into a celebration of the Transfiguration of Christ) and have a richer repertoire of traditional dances. Their level of literacy and education is much higher than that of the east. The Rize Hemshinli, whose members have achieved high office, thus manage to preserve their distinctiveness while proclaiming a Turco-Muslim identity. Both branches of the Hemshinli still have some Armenian-derived family names.

In public, many Hemshinli reject an Armenian origin, and some even insist they were descended from Turks from Central Asia who founded the “Gregorian” denomination of Christianity. They are upset by Lazi and others who call them Armenians.

Erhan Gürsel Ersoy in a second chapter also examines aspects of identity. The western Hemshinli follow a very pragmatic version of Islam, and still drink alcohol, sing folksongs, and dance in mixed company. Ersoy looks at the Vartevor festival. Today it is organized by a committee with a chairman. Money is collected from each household in the highland pastures to pay a bagpipe player, buy alcohol, and pay for any other expenses. Drinking, fireworks, and folk dancing are the main attractions. Ersoy looks at a second festival with Armenian roots, the Hodoç festival, which takes place during haymaking time, but is not as widely celebrated as Vartevor. It too includes food, drink, and folk dancing.

Ildikó Bellér-Hann explores Hemshinli-Lazi relations. The Lazi (Laz in Turkish), converts to Islam from Christianity during Ottoman times, live in the same areas as the Hemshinli, and number perhaps around 250,000. They have preserved their Caucasian language, related to Georgian, orally, and so are bilingual like the eastern Hemshinli. Lazi and Hemshinli are locally often contrasted with each other. The Lazi stereotypically are represented as agriculturalists, as opposed to the pastoralist Hemshinli. The Hemshinli are considered pacificists and calm, compared to the nervous, hot-blooded, and violent nature of the Lazi. The Hemshinli is said to be a planner, and the Lazi are entrepreneurial and ambitious but live for the day. Hemshinli consider the Lazi mean and inhospitable, and also point out their large noses, while Lazi complain of the odor and lack of hygiene of the Hemshinli (a result of work with large numbers of animals).

Intermarriage between the two groups has been limited. Traditionally, it has been asserted that Hemshinli brides were taken by Lazi men, but no Lazi women married Hemshinli men. However, statistics from the 1940s and 1950s, and the late 1980s and early 1990s, belie this pattern.

Rüdiger Benninghaus examines the methods and consequences of the manipulation of etnic origins by both western Hemshinli and non-Hemshinli, especially Turks. Attempts to prove the Hemshinli to have Turkish origins fit in with broader historiographical and linguistic approaches in Turkey, which in the 1930s went to the extreme of proclaiming that all languages derived from Turkish, and all civilizations were either Turkish in origin or influenced by the Turks historically.

Simonian’s volume contains a wealth of information on the Hemshin, but may be a little difficult for general readers who are not familiar with Armenian and Turkish history. Part of the problem is due to the complicated nature of the topic, and part due to the disparate approaches of chapters common to many multi-author works. There is some overlap between chapters which perhaps could have been avoided. A general map of the region would have been useful for readers in the early part of the volume. It may be hard to keep track of the different towns that are in the original Hemshin territory, versus those to which the Hemshin later spread.

Most of the captions of the photographs of manuscripts and bindings pertaining to Christina Maranci’s chapter have been matched to the wrong image, forcing readers to guess at the correct ascriptions. An errata insert would alleviate this problem. Some of the black-and-white illustrations in other sections of the book appear a bit faint.

Overall, this is an excellent resource book, and it is obvious that Simonian and the authors have put in much effort to use inaccessible primary sources in a variety of languages. Hopefully, Simonian’s second volume will soon appear, and the two volumes in turn will lead to new monographic studies.


Discussion Policy

Comments are welcomed and encouraged. Though you are fully responsible for the content you post, comments that include profanity, personal attacks or other inappropriate material will not be permitted. Asbarez reserves the right to block users who violate any of our posting standards and policies.


  1. Book said:

    What is a second volume of the book good for if it is again only written in english and Hemshins in Turkey can’t read their own history themselves & another problem is: How many people can afford this expensive book?

    • Shahan said:

      Before we educate the Hemshins about their ancestors, we first need to educate the Armenians about them.
      Most of the Armenians dont now anything about Hemshins. So one of the aims of this book is raising awareness.
      you can also check this bilingual informative website: or go to the following forum:

      • Salpi A. said:

        Sorry to say this to you….But they are irrelevant and mean nothing. We don’t know for sure if they are Armenian or a mixture. Just because they speak a language. My grandparents didn’t know how to speak Armenian. Does that mean they are not Armenian?
        These people have not served Armenia or the Armenian history in anyway…So it really doesn’t matter who they are.
        What’s the point of this book? To spread Islam in Armenia? I think of one word…Propaganda.

        • Dr. Sylva Portoian said:

          I am sorry for you to think this way …
          Many things we don’t know …
          and before we die
          we will stay deaf and blind
          How we should know everything …
          we are learning every day … Even…
          Maybe after we sigh?

        • sylva portoian said:

          Your comment is really unethical at all …
          How you can say this …!!!
          They are Armenians more than me and you …
          They never mixed … they intermarried …
          You can’t see their faces …
          their Armenians eyes,
          their thin lips and innocent smile …
          And Armenian dialect, music, and songs …
          Awake and be fair …
          Read more and be fair …
          Dr. Sylva Portoian

        • Ara Kassabian said:

          Well said Salpi, and Propaganda it is and we all know who is paying for it and why?

  2. Tigran said:

    Very informative, thank you! I myself am Hamshentsi from Abkhazia. I never was interested in my family history before, as we always said we are just Armenian. But recently I am finding out more about my Hamshen Armenian origins. We are Christian and as far as I knew all Hamshentsi were Christians, but apparently that is not the case. Very interesting to read, thanks!

  3. Armo said:

    They are not armenan. they are turkatsats people who sold out years ago. Shame on them

    • Shahan said:

      This is the most ignorant comment I have ever heard. Who told you they are turkatsatz? In which book did you read about them?
      Who gave you the right to decide who is Armenian and who is not? ? ? ? ? ? ?
      These people have kept their culture and language for centuries without having access to schools while we see some Armenian families in Diaspora not giving the chance to their children to go to Armenian school.
      I advise you to go and read about them. there are many websites: is one of them.
      Or you can get the book that is mentioned in the article. If you can’t afford it, there is an online version which you review.

      As Armenians, we should stop this emotional reactions and starting being objectives basing our opinion on facts not some hearsays…..

      • Salpi A. said:

        The comment is not ignorant. They did sell out, if they were Armenian to begin with. If you are going to post articles, you should accept comments, even if they dont’ support your book. Unless you only want positive comments and be praised lol

    • Dr. Sylva Portoian said:

      Armo…Please think once again before you write …
      These unlucky Armenians suffered even worse and decades before genocide …
      Armo…Read and learn
      Don’t jump the fences that you can’t jump …

      I am sorry for you to think this way …
      Many things we don’t know …
      and before we die
      we will stay deaf and blind
      How we should know everything …
      we are learning every day …
      Maybe after we sigh?

      I never knew about them but I read and versed in my poetry books.

    • sylva portoian said:

      Your comment is really unethical at all …
      How you can say this …!!!
      They are Armenians more than me and you …
      They never mixed … they intermarried …
      You can’t see their faces …
      their Armenians eyes,
      their thin lips, and innocent smile …
      And Armenian dialect, music, and songs …
      Awake and be fair …
      Read more and be fair …
      Dr. Sylva Portoian

  4. steve a said:

    I think if Armenian wants to go with muslim religion, I’m fine with that as long as they did it on their on without turks forcing them. Armenian is Armenian no matter what religion they are, we have to respect that, also if we have Russians or Americans becoming Armenian by marriage or adoption we have to respect that too, they are full Armenians too, all this gossip has to stop about this is Hayastansi, this one is Lebanon, the other is polsa hay, If we don’t respect us no one will.

  5. Panos said:

    Hemshin are not Armenians. The last thing we need is to let 150,000 Hemshin cloud our Christian roots and good name. Let them be gone. Everyone associates Armenians with being Christian – why would we want to have people say “Oh, some Armenians are also Muslim.” This would be an outrage and affront to our culture, heritage, Armenian Apostolic Church, and what Vartan Zoravor fought the Persians for. Stop this nonsense about the Hemshin.

    • tashnag said:

      This is like saying “everyone associates Arabs with Muslims”. I dont care what everyone associates themselves with. Armenian nationalists put their nation above their sect. The same how Arab nationalists did. If you choose your Christian identity over your Armenian identity, then you are not being a proud or nationalistic Armenian.

      • Salpi A. said:

        Not really. Just your way of looking at things. And honestly, such an argument is a complete waste of time. What came first, the egg or the hen? Gosh some of you have a lot of time on your hands.

    • guiro said:

      Yo Panos, If you really like being Christian that much go to Jerusalem or Vatican and live there. Armenians were Armenians and will remain Armenians before and after Christianity.
      Christianity probably did more harm than good to our history when it invaded Armenia. It’s not like Jesus was Armenian. We got a religion from a jew. So if that’s fine then the Hemshin people who are Muslims but know and believe they are Armenians are fine too.
      Krikor Lousavorich came and erased many documents and scriptures about our pre-Christian history just like ISIS is destroying museums now.

      • shara shirakan said:

        t. stepan partamanian.

        armenians were in the process of being persianized culturally before the 300s. anahit, vaghaun, and aram/aramazd were persian gods brought by achaeamenids and parthians, and Armenians were being converted to Zoroastrianism. christianization brought the alphabet and literature, and set Armenians culturally separate from persians, greeks, and later arabs and turkic invaders allowing them to retain their culture.

        it is exactly the reason why these hemshins lost their ethnic identity, many other armenians were islamized but were immediately kurdified and turkified under ottoman rule. the hemshins only kept their culture because they live in isolation from other groups in the mountains.

    • Dr. Sylva Portoian said:

      If you think you are true Christian …think once again …
      And accept every religion with respect …
      When we are born we are religionless …
      Think that way ..and don’t think every Christian behaves like a human …
      Try to modify your glial cells …

  6. Yalçın Koçmar said:

    As stated in the article the hemshins in Turkey believe that they are Turks and their origin comes from central Asia. If they sey so, it is so. Thus, we should count them as Turks and Muslims.

    • Shahan said:

      Selam Yalçın,
      Their origin comes from Van/Vasburagan which is the heartland of the Armenian Nation. Hemshin’s ancestors are Shabuh and Hamam Amaduni (there is no conflict on this- even Turkish historians confirm this). Amadunis were Armenian Princes who ruled Armenia for centuries. Hamam Amaduni’s great grandfather is Prince Vahan Amaduni who is buried in the village of Oshagan in Armenia. You are welcomed there to see it.

      As for counting them, your government counts the Kurds, yezidis, arabs, alevis, zazas, Lazs, Hemshinlis and Kizilbashs as Turks but that’s not true. All these people have their rights, language, history and culture.

      Hemshinlis have the right to know the truth and then it’s up to them to decide if they are Turks or not.
      I will be interested to know where are you from in Turkey and to which of the 40 nationalities you belong.
      Thanks for your civilized discussion.

      • Salpi A. said:

        Btw, they don’t look Armenian, whatsoever. I did my research. They are a mix. Also their Armenian is not pure Armenian. It’s a mix.
        I dont’ know why you keep insisting you discovered the truth and you are 100% right.
        Maybe you should run a genetic test.

  7. Shahan said:


    The book has been out for 2 years why now do the review….
    On another note, I have met old Hemshinli women who are teaching their sons the language (Hemshinji/Armenian) away from any schools or even textbooks……while we have so called Armenian families in Beirut, LA and Paris who live close to an Armenian school but send their children to foreign schools……
    So who is the Armenian here?

    • Salpi A. said:

      It’s a mixed language. It’s mixed for a reason. It is not pure. They are not purely Armenian. The end.

    • Salpi A. said:

      It’s a mixed language. It’s mixed for a reason. It is not pure. They are not purely Armenian. The end.

  8. Random Armenian said:

    Armo and Panos,

    I reject your attitudes. If these Hemshins are indeed Armenians from long ago, they should be embraced. We were Armenian before Christ was born. Our language and history goes before we adopted Christianity.

    Yalçın, there are many people in Turkey who have Armenian roots but have hidden it from others and their kids because it’s dangerous to reveal themselves. This is very true in the heartlands. I’ve also heard that those that have non-Turkish roots and have converted to Islam under duress have the stigma of being converts and not true muslims. This is something I was told, but it would not surprise me if it was true. Also, there is some fear in Turkey of those only recently converted might convert back to Christianity or embrace their non-Turkish roots.

    Steve, right on.

  9. tashnag said:

    If you are an Armenian nationalist then YOU DO NOT CARE ABOUT RELIGIOUS SECTS. Armenian comes first before Christian, ALWAYS. An Armenian can be a Christian, Muslim, Pagan, etc. Anyone who says that Armenian=Christian is trying to put their sect above their nation. We will always pick Armenian first. Hemshen are Armenian, through all they have faced they have still wanted to and been able to retain their identity and language.

  10. mko Kaynakjian said:

    Oh right Panos…how insightful you are. I guess Armenians, wherever they live, who speak the language and retain an Armenian self-dentity but do not believe in a monotheistic “God” are not to be considered Armenian.
    Aah…how beautiful a simple mind can be.

  11. Eleni said:

    being almighty, god had more than enough time to complete conversion of all people to either religion.
    the fact that it hasn’t happened is self evident to yet another fact: god doesn’t care if you’re christian or muslim.
    so… why should people?
    why should armenians define blood and heritage by the cross or the crescent?

  12. hayrenaser said:

    thank the universe for the forward thinking “harajdimakan” armenians…
    what makes an armenian, armenian is his/her blood line as well as his/her desire to be one…
    not their peripheral choices such as religion, political affiliation, occupation, whether or not born in armenia, or involuntary manifestations such as color of skin, or sexual orientation,

    shahan, steve, tashnag, random armenian, mko, and eleni KETSEQ, tzez nman hayer@ bazmanan
    hayrenakits tigran, you are an armenian no matter who says what, christian or not.

    ur el gnas, inch vor @nes, qo mayr armenian chmoranas or churanas.

  13. tigran hamam amatuni/hemsin basköylü ermeni said:

    we hamshetzis are armenian.we are pontians-greec, we are lazis. we was all tousendyears here, we are now here and we will be all time here. its not importent to be, moslem or christ or ateist or paganist or budist. we are feeling our identity-armenian-greec-lazis.basta………
    I am happy to be feeling urartu-ararat-hy…and hamshener

    • Hasan said:

      Little correction. I am Laz, I am muslim, but I am related ethnically and language-wise to the Georgians. Neither to Turks or Armenians and Greeks. With all respect to all of them.

  14. Stepan said:

    You are an Armenian, no matter what religion you choose. Diversity of thought or religion is very important, especially for us Armenians.

    • Salpi A. said:

      Every culture has its own way of looking at things and the Western way should not dominate people’s way of thinking. Had Armenia converted, very possible Armenia would not have existed today. Ugh, go read about our history and everything we have been through and get a grip over yourself. Appreciate your culture and country’s values as they are. Unless you really want bearded men who marry 4 women and mistreat them as a part of your Armenian culture or you want Armenian men to go fight in Iraq and Syria in the name of Allah.

  15. hayashot said:

    we are armenian and hamshen armenians are our brothers , let them introduce them to armenians
    I have big respect for them that they survived and kept their idendity is not religion make us armenian

    • Dr. Sylva Portoian said:

      Hayashot…Well said …
      We were Armenians thousands of years ago,
      Religion will never change our DNA,
      We will remain So …
      Christianity destroyed our ego …
      Not to fight…the savage race …God never helped us …
      We were genocided in front of him…where was he then???

  16. Vardik said:

    We are very few in the world. We need them and other Armenians to make our nation bigger and stronger, esp when we get our lands back; we just can work on their education about Armenianness.

  17. Dr. Sylva Portoian said:

    Armenian Massacres in Adana,
    The Year 1909
    [Another proof for Genocide, Yet, Unidentified-Undefined!]

    What massacres can be remembered?
    Weep, burrow under your hard bony chest
    With your kin and read your squeezed prayers.

    How long to pray to Almighty?
    What to plea,
    To ask, “How can cruel people pray to God
    Yet exist to slay and stay proud!”
    Can God return our lost ancestors, even on a screen
    To tell of endless cruelties of so-called humans;
    Those who can slay even an unborn sound?

    Turkifications continued since
    The eleventh century until this moment, . . . instant,
    Turks with Armenian names
    Hamshentsi – Hemsinly from word Hemsin*.
    They were forced to change their religion
    Whoever refused was thrown in valleys . . . rivers alive.

    Today, some Armenians can never believe . . . perceive . . .
    Yet grasp . . . endure . . . capitulate . . .
    Tolerate without tears
    That there are Armenians
    Who agreed to change their ancestors’ faith
    Soulfully . . . Joyfully . . . Forcelessly . . .
    Fearlessly . . . Fencelessly!

    Count the massacres:
    Hemsin from the seventh century, Later in 11th century (1064)
    Hamid-ian (1894-1908), Adana-ian (1909)** Savage-ian (1915-1923)
    Further Turkifications after the Genocide of 1915 . . .
    Soundlessly much more carried by Atatürk: called them,
    “The remnants after sword”

    Ata-Türk: The father of Turks;
    Another so-called Democratic slayer of the Armenians
    Morgenthau*** defined in year 1915, the last massacre,
    As a “Campaign of Race Extermination.”
    All ended well as it was defined as Genocide
    Genocide . . . Genocide . . . Genocide . . .
    By the clever, dedicated lawyer Raphael Lemkin****
    Who defined it after his tactful,
    Passionate sense, full of logic
    Insisting to engrave it without a doubt …
    An Authentic Genocide.

    The last Turkificaion was the worst:
    Turkifying what was left of the Armenians
    Mostly orphans, after their parents burned …
    Without leaving skeletons.

    Once again not to be named
    As Hemsintsi of the Eleventh Century
    Thus . . . definitely actual Turkish, by a new man
    By changing their Names and Surnames,
    With an Atatürkian signed birth certificate.
    Language, Religion, Ethnicity, Culture . . . *****
    For they insisted . . . that no-one can return to their
    Armenian descent, in anyway …
    Thus forever.

    Still, every free human has a tongue
    That extended outside the lips,
    One day must reach the savages,
    Even if smashed down;
    Each tongue possesses laced myocytes and
    A heavy blood supply like the cardiac-muscles . . . and
    More than any other organ
    Shall not be grieved.

    The Genuine Spirits have
    A Faith and fates insist … Nothing stamped forever
    Hence . . . forceful tragedies on humanity
    Shall never last forever.

    Sylva Portoian, MD
    April 22, 2009
    Will be in my 18th poetry collection soon …

  18. Dr. Sylva Portoian said:

    Sorry to say …I don’t like the Title of the article …
    They did not become Muslims … Because they wanted to be …
    They were forced to change their religion …
    And I don’t like to use Muslim word
    We lived in A real Islamic land (THE REAL ARAB LAND)since our Birth …
    But no one forced us to change our faith …
    Those people were using Islam in a Tartaric-Barbaric way …
    They were Turkified… It is in my Glossary of Term: Neologisms
    In all my 18 Poetry Books, which should enter all Dictionaries

    Turkification: – That kind of term implies the forceful changing of
    others’ names, surnames, religions, languages, cultures, and
    ethnicities by an enemy tribe or country.
    More precise wording is to say,
    Genociding Identity: De-identification, Islamization,
    Languageification, Cultureification, Ethnicification . . .
    Turks tried to Turkify the Arabs as well, and in the Arabic
    Dictionary the term ‘Tattreek’ is in use.