December 10 marks the 30th anniversary of the referendum on Artsakh’s independence. In 1991, some three months after Artsakh declared independence from the Soviet Union, 99.89 percent of the population voted to make Artsakh an independent republic.
After seven decades under Soviet rule, this became one of the first expressions of the people’s will, defying Communist tenets and exercising their inalienable right to self-determination.
The concept of self-determination has been at the core of mediation efforts for the settlement of the Karabakh conflict and the latest push for the OSCE Minsk Group co-chairs to become engaged in addressing Artsakh’s status hinges on this.
After last year’s aggressive attack on Artsakh, Azerbaijan and Turkey have been advancing the notion that Artsakh, as an independent republic, does not exist. The two countries are pouring millions of dollars on infrastructure improvements, building roads, tunnels, airports, while at the same time erasing Artsakh’s Armenian heritage and identity.
So, it was beyond egregious for Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan to tell parliament on Wednesday that Artsakh’s final status may not include independence.
“The final status of Nagorno-Karabakh does not definitely imply its independence,” Pashinyan told lawmakers, saying that a referendum on Artsakh’s status was not discussed during post-war negotiations.
This is a dangerous statement coming from Armenia’s leader who is the one tasked with defending the interests of not only Armenia but also Artsakh in negotiations. Pashinyan can continue to point fingers in his ridiculous effort to shrug off blame for the humiliating defeat, but what he can’t—and must not be allowed to—do trample upon the will of the people so definitively expressed on December 10, 1991.
If Pashinyan and his government have given up on Artsakh’s independence, the people of Artsakh and the entire Armenian Nation must collectively fight to protect, at all costs, the will of the people of Artsakh.
The fact of the matter is that a referendum was already held on December 10, 1991 and the overwhelming majority of the people chose independence. This vote cannot be stolen from the people, especially since our sisters and brother spilled blood to defend it.
The November 9, 2020 agreement that ended the military actions in Artsakh and stipulated the surrender of territories to Azerbaijan cannot be viewed as an effort to override Artsakh’s independence. Hence, engaging in negotiations, such as the “3+3” scheme proposed by Ankara and hailed by Baku, pose direct threats to Artsakh’s independence.
The United States and Europe have signaled that the status of Karabakh remains unresolved, thus signaling the conflict has not ended, directly opposing the position taken by Baku and Ankara. Moscow, on the other hand, is tacitly pushing for the OSCE Minsk Group co-chairmen’s engagement in the process and, on many occasions, and has flip-flopped on the issue of status.
If the U.S. and Europe allow the status talks to veer from the concept of cementing people’s right to self-determination and independence, then they would be betraying their own commitments to upholding democracy and democratic norms and principles. This message should be sent loudly to lawmakers in the U.S. and across Europe and become a rallying call for all Armenians to demand international recognition of Artsakh.
Furthermore, based on Artsakh’s expression for independence 30 years ago, any discussions on its status must ensure that Artsakh does not fall under Azerbaijani rule.
The independence of the Republic of Artsakh cannot be compromised. Any effort to that end will set a dangerous precedent that the will of the people can be trampled upon the whims of political actors seeking to expand their personal and other interests and agendas.
The way that Armenians rallied together last year during the war showed the Armenian Nation’s ability to stand together in defense of the homeland. Preserving and strengthening Artsakh’s independence and statehood must become a priority for all Armenians.
Armenians have always dreamed and dreams are fascist society that do not want to see reality. For 20 years, you did not want to see the rise of azerbaijan’s love power.
Now, you do not see that there is no place called Arshak, there is a place in the middle of Azerbaijan and there are 20000 Armenian minorities in a circle.
When the scorpion catches fire in the middle of the pocket, the scorpion commits suicide by stinging itself, just as the Armenian minority will do in the land.
bayram the azerbarani sheep
Once again, you forgot to take your anti-hallucination pills. Be a good sheep and take those pills. You are starting to hallucinate more and more. Where did you learn your english, in a barn you share with your sheep?
Bayram Khan, or I should say Bayram Efendi, you’re so far from the truth and unaware of what has happened and are only repeated what you’ve been told by brainwashing, like a parrot that you believe the lies you’ve been fed to. Azerbaijan, as you know it didn’t even exist before before 1918. Indigenous people who lived out Artsakh area in what you call Azerbaijan were called Aghvanik plus other two major ethnicities who lived there for thousands of years. The indigenous people were also called Albanians, not to be confused with current Albanians in Europe, west of Macedonia, NW of Greece. Artsakh was given to the newly formed Azerbaijan by Stalin in 1923, and in March of 1921 Stalin split Nakhijevan and put it under Azerbaijan’s control. State the facts instead of stories about scorpions which everyone knows. I even knew that when I was 8-9 years old and even tried it. Stick to the subject, if you can but that’s difficult since the facts are so far away from you. Azerbaijan can’t even fly the F-16 fighter jets such that Turkey’s pilots had to fly it for you. Pathetic.
For nearly 30 years Azerbaijan was proposing maximum autonomy to Karabakh in exchange for the 7 districts, however Armenia got greedy and did all they could to stall the peace process now that Azerbaijan has militarily won back all the lands they are insistent that the earlier offer is no longer on the table and the conflict is resolved. Had Armenians been less greedy they could have cut a good deal but greed overcame them
You don’t even have the courage to speak the reality. This war was not between Armenia and artificial Azerbaijan alone for if that were the case the result would have been the same as always, artificial Azerbaijani defeat and humiliation. This war was between a small Armenian defense force in the conflict zone, with some volunteers from Armenia, against the combined forces of artificial Azerbaijan, terrorist Turkey (NATO), terrorist Pakistan, several thousand fatherless Syrian ISIS paid-mercenaries transplanted in the war zone by terrorist Turkey and paid for by artificial Azerbaijani petrodollars, despotic Belarus and morally-bankrupt and hypocritical Zionist state of Israel. The war itself was conducted and dictated by terrorist Turkish military and in many cases using Turkish NATO weapons left behind after joint military exercises in occupied Armenian province of Nakhijevan-Նախիջեվան (the name meaning The Last Resting Place of Noah in Armenian) and transported to the occupied and ancient Armenian city of Gandzak (Գանձակ) renamed to Genje. For 45 days, artificial Azerbaijan neither had a government nor an army. They were both turned over to terrorist Turkey to do their dirty work they were incapable of all along. Both the Turkish defense and foreign ministers had become the acting ministers of artificial Azerbaijan for this period. Are you not ashamed of yourselves pimping out your battles to half a dozen terrorist states? Then again the victorious Armenian armed forces had taken away your manhood thirty years ago.
You don’t have any understanding and depth in this matter and it shows. You are experts in hit and run. You come here and try to hit us by a few lines of nonsense and then run away. You don’t the mental capacity to engage in any form of analysis. That’s because if you do you will lose by incriminating yourselves. Your method of making some stupid statement and take off is the coward’s way out. For thirty years you could not do a damn thing and you came to the final conclusion that you are incapable of fighting the Armenians on your own and decided to buy and pay for this war by your petrodollars just like you buy and pay for everything. Deception and bribery is in your blood. Isn’t it interesting that you can visit any Armenian news site and freely express your opinions without any censorship but no artificial Azerbaijani news site would allow you to express your opinion. Why is that? That’s because your criminal leaders want people only to know the state’s version of fabricated events and fake history. Free speech is their enemy!
Ararat, If you listen to the president of karabakh for once, he said that during the battle of hadrut 1500 Armenian soldiers deserted their ranks and fled the battlefield fighting against two dozen Azeri special forces. These soldiers were arrested and held until the end of the war to prevent further desertions. Also in the battle of shusha more than 2000 soldiers couldn’t defend themselves against 300 special forces and lost. You can write a wall all over again but it doesn’t change facts.
Mir Ali Efendi, answer this question: Azeri pilots couldn’t even fly the F-16s so Turkey’s air force pilots had to fly it for you. That says a lot about your so called courageous or I should say lack of it. Seriously, your pilots can’t fly military fighter jets? On top of that you had to buy the banned Israeli drones and cluster bombs and even Turkey had to hire a few thousand mercenaries from Syria and Iraq to fight for you. Really?
None of the war correspondents said anything about the F16’s which were stationed there but never used, Azerbaijan doesn’t have F16’s so the idea of using them is a moot point. Now let me ask you a question if the Armenian army was so brave why did it pack up in just 44 days?
ARMENIAN FASCISTS YOU always lose, your reason is to live a dream. That’s why you haven’t been a state for 1500 years. You didn’t become a state in 1991. You became a state with the military support of Russia. In 70 years of commissary oppression, the komilists did everything to erase the feeling of fighting for the Turkish homeland, the nation and the nation of azerbaijan.
But I know you know that without the help of Russia, Armenia could not fight standing up.
In 2020, russia helped armenia, but with azerbaijan’s combat capability and technological superiority, it destroyed the armenian army
The ceasefire in Azerbaijan destroyed civilians in the rest of the world.
I say it again, there is no armenian army, old gangs are trying to protect its borders.
look at the real world now, fascist brains have the power to smash even Yerevan in 24 hours in the repetition of war, azerbaijan turkey, azerbaijan military education for 24 years, bare-footed babies who escaped from the genocide, the children, the homeland took back
he also took revenge on the children of the fathers of the Armenians who murdered their families . In a small operation on November 16 , the Armenian children aged 18 fled by laying down their weapons or surrendered . no armenian soldiers there are gangs in armenia
Sunik is Azerbaijan. In 2020, when you lived, there was a war, the mutual Armenian army was destroyed.a group of fascist cattle herds who, like the Nazis, lived in dreams. years of idiot fascists who will teach you the truth by hurting Whatever your name is, I am Turkish, not Azerbaijani. The Turkish world of 350 million people, each of them is azerbaijan love, let’s see if Russia can save you, the Armenian state, which was established by the Russians with the intention of the dam, the name of the non-Azeri state.
bayram the azerbarani sheep
You sound like a retard who escaped from the sanitarium. And you know what people who are committed to sanitariums are famous for? HALLUCINATION! Do yourself a favor and take those anti-hallucination pills because you are starting to sound like a bitter old grandma who sees things that don’t exist!
You illiterate idiot, artificial Azerbaijan did not exist before 1918. I can not find even one historic map of the region with a country called Azerbaijan on it before 1918. It never existed. It was invented by criminal Soviets and terrorist Turks in 1918 for the homeless Caucasian Muslim Tatars (Turkified Mongols) and renamed to Azerbaijan only in 1936 despite protest from Iranian government for stealing the name from Persian ancient territory of Atropatane. Terrorist Turkey did not exist before 1923. The genocidal Ottoman Empire was formed in the 15th century by invading terrorist Turks from Central Asia on occupied Armenian, Greek and Assyrian lands.
When Armenia was a kingdom in the 7th century BC there was NO Russia, NO genocidal Ottoman Empire, NO terrorist Turkey and NO artificial Azerbaijan. You are all non-natives either from Central Asia or are the remnants of Turco-Mongol invasions into the region. Turkish origin is in Central Asia and not in the Caucasus, not in Asia Minor, not in Near East, not in the Middle East and certainly not in Europe. You are all a bunch of non-native mixed mutts.
Artificial Azerbaijan, a gas station disguised as a country, was invented at the end of WWI when the Ottoman Empire was defeated by the Allies and it was created as a terrorist Turkish outpost in the South Caucasus, a little Turkey for the defeated Turks, and as a base for Soviet expansion into the Middle East. You can LIE all you want. No amount of LIES, misrepresentation and falsification can ever change the facts of history recorded long before retards like you came along.
Artificial Azerbaijan belongs to native Armenians, Persians and other native ethnic groups today living under your subjugation such as the Talysh, Lezgis, Avars, Tats and Udis. You don’t belong here! Terrorist Turkey was invented on the lands of millions of native Christians, Armenians-Greeks-Assyrians, they murdered in cold blood.
If you believe in all the nosecone you print here then here is a challenge to you:
Show me a country called “Azerbaijan” on the map before 1918. You are a LIAR and a RETARD if you don’t. I am waiting for your proof. If you don’t I will be pi$$ing all over you! Now put up or shut up azerbarani sheep!
You are a stupid, stupid, brainless person who does not know culture and history, you are a retarded fascist nazi dog.
the origins of idiot azerbaijan are turkish boys, empires have been established there since 300 years BC and their name is azerbaijan, hun state, from 300 years gokturks. It’s as old as you are, uncultured, uncivilized, idiots, who think you are Armenians, the offspring of America, stupid people, sheep and cattle, not even cattle, fascists. Look on the internet, look at the internet, which Turks are Kafkas, Turkish states have existed for a hundred years. After that, look if there is an Armenian state in 1500, then look at the Russian history. Where did the russians settle the sheep armenians in order to break up the eastern Turkustan with the Ottoman folk songs?
bayram the azerbarani sheep
You thin you are the one who knows history? Look at the way you talk. You sound like a brain-dead idiot. Reading your nonsense is like reading a kindergarten little idiot making things up from his imagination. I pi$$ on everything you write. You think you are the one who has culture? How can a sheep like you have any culture you racist pig. Lying, deceiving, killing, and stealing is your culture. The whole world knows about Turkish terrorism except you retard!
I asked you to show me artificial “azerbaijan” on a map before 1918 and here you are talking about the same nonsense because you don’t know a damn thing. It is in your blood to lie and disagree with anything we say you filthy little cockroach. Where is the map showing your existence here before 1918 you retarded imbecile? Put up ot shut up serefsiz mongol dog!
After 100 years, there will be no Armenians in the Caucasus, you know it very well, you are talking such an idiot about it.
My Armenian friends, I grew up next to a 200-year-old Armenian church, I am not a fascist, like you, Alhamdurullah, I am a Muslim and Turkish, I am happy.
I see how diaspora Armenians are fascist and how you destroyed Armenia. You can’t change history even if you don’t want to.
stupid fascist idiots. It was seen in here, how you tried to erase Turkish history, but even if you burn it, the whole world knows history, uncivilized, uncultured American idiot
You have never seen a Turk in your life, because you are a fascist, the only difference from the culture-knowing religion is that you are a Christian, but everyone who looks at the world with the same view other than himself is an enemy, brainless idiot.
Turks are not strangers to the Caucasus at all. The most important reason why Turks are familiar with the Caucasus stems from the Caucasus’s own geopolitical geography. The Caucasus has been a piece of geography that the Turks wanted to keep in their hands throughout history, due to the presence of several passage points suitable for crossing the mountain range between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea.
Like many nations, the arrival of Turks in the Caucasus dates back to the first known ages of history. The first arrival of Turks to the Caucasus, dominated by Cimmerians, Scythians and Sarmatians, was with the Huns. One of the geographical parts visited during the “Migration of Tribes” initiated by the Turks after the Great Hun Empire was destroyed by the Chinese was the Caucasus. M.S. Crossing the Volga River in 375, the Huns under the command of Balamir reached the Danube River and settled in Hungary. After Attila’s death in 453, the Western Hun Empire expanded its borders east and west, reaching an area of 4 million square kilometers and dominating the northern parts of the Caucasus. With the collapse of the empire in 496, the Hun domination in the North Caucasus came to an end.
When the Göktürk Empire, founded by Bumin Kagan, reached its widest limits in 552, during the reign of Bumin Kagan, his brother Istemi Kagan and his son Bagan Khans, the Caucasus also met with the dominance of the Gokturk State. The domination of the Göktürks to the north of the Caucasus ended with the emergence of the Khazar State in the first half of the 7th century.
The first Turkish state to have its name written in the Caucasus was the Hazaras. The founder of this Turkish State, which gave its name to the Caspian Sea, the Khazars migrated to the west due to the Hun raids from the east and settled between the Dniester river and the Volga River from the Crimea to the Caspian Sea. The Khazars, who consolidated their dominance in the region after the collapse of the Western Huns, made an agreement with the Byzantines and started a struggle with the Sassanids, who had been dominant in Iran since 586. The Hazaras, who conquered Azerbaijan in 627 with the support of Byzantium, declared their independence under the leadership of Bulan Kagan, after the Göktürk Khanate, the great khanate of the period, came under Chinese rule in 630. The Hazaras, who dominated the North Caucasus, the Lower and Middle Volga and the shores of the Azov Sea during the Bulan Kagan period, considered themselves the heirs of the Gokturk State.
At the beginning of the 8th century, the Khazars, who lost their capital Belencer to the Arab armies that crossed the Caucasus Mountains and entered Dagestan, made the city of Astrakhan, on the northwestern coast of the Caspian in today’s Russia, their capital. After a while, the Khazars, who entered Shirvan, took back most of Azerbaijan. While the Khazars won the war in Ardebil, which is located on the borders of Southern Azerbaijan, which is now in the hands of Iran, the Arab army suffered a great loss. However, the Arab army of 100,000 people under the command of the Governor of Azerbaijan, Mervan bin Muhammed, crossed the Caucasus in two directions and entered the Caspian country in 737. While the Khazar forces were destroyed in the war in front of El Beyda, their commander-in-chief was killed in Tarhan. Marwan made the Khazar Khan’s peace offer conditional on his acceptance of the religion of Islam. While the Khazar Khan, who was a Muslim, was establishing his dominance in his country again, Islam began to spread rapidly among the Turks during the peace period established with the Arabs. However, the Khazar Khan and his entourage, who vacillated between Christianity and Judaism before becoming Muslims, returned to Judaism in 786. Thus, the Khazars became the only Turkish state in history that accepted Judaism.
The Khazar State, which lost power as a result of the attacks of the Normans, the ancestors of today’s Russians, collapsed in 965 during the reign of Yusuf Kagan. Later, the Khazar State, which retreated to the lands of the Crimea and fell to the level of a small principality due to the pressure of the Pecheneg Turks, was destroyed by being unable to withstand the Pecheneg, Russian and Greek attacks in the following period. The greatest memory that has survived from the Khazars was the name they gave to the Caspian Sea.
The Caucasus, which came under the rule of the Romans after the Khazars, was invaded by the Sassanids who ruled in Iran. Although the Arab armies came as far as Derbent during the caliphate of Hazrat Umar, the Hazaras did not allow them to advance. During the reign of Hashim bin Abdulmelik, one of the Umayyad caliphs, the Caucasus entered the borders of the Umayyad State. The areas conquered from the Caucasus were united administratively with the Governorship of Al-Jazeera. After the North and South Caucasus regions were completely conquered, an encampment was established in Bazza, the center of Arran. A large province was formed, including Azerbaijan, Arran, Shirvan, Armenia and Georgia. During the Abbasid period, this province was disintegrated and separately; A Muslim Emirate of Georgia was established in Azerbaijan, Armenia and the province of Shirvan, and in
Unlike the Huns, Gokturks and Khazars, the first Turkish state to conquer the Caucasus from south to north was the Seljuks. Seljuks entered the Caucasus from Anatolia and Iran. In the period when the Seljuks were still ruled by the “Yabgu”, Çağrı Bey with a cavalry unit of 3 thousand people crossed the territory of the Ghazni State and reached Eastern Anatolia in 1030. He defeated the Armenian and Georgian forces by making a reconnaissance movement from here to Tbilisi. He returned by examining the pastures and pastures of the region, collecting the necessary political, ethnic, cultural and military information.
The next Caucasian campaign of the Seljuks, who defeated the Ghaznavids in Dandanakan in 1040 and strengthened their state, took place in 1046. The Seljuks defeated the Georgian, Armenian and Byzantine armies in Ganja in 1046 and in Erzen, Karaz, Hasankale and Erzurum in 1048.
Sultan Alparslan, who ascended to the Seljuk throne in 1063 upon the death of his uncle Tuğrul Bey, conquered the Ani Castle, which is located at the northeastern end of Anatolia and considered sacred by the Christian world, in 1064, by wandering over the Caucasus and subordinating the local small kingdoms, and on 16 August. He entered Kars in 1064.
After the death of Sultan Melikşah, the fight that started between the heirs of the throne after the disintegration of the Great Seljuk State also took place over the Caucasus. Berkyaruk, who took over the management initiative in 1093, faced the rebellion of his brother Ganja Meliki Muhammed Tapar with his claim to the throne. Although Berkyaruk lost the war in Sefidrud in 1100, he later defeated Muhammed Tapar 4 times. However, Berkyaruk, who did not want more bloodshed, persuaded his brother to make peace in 1104. Thus, the sultanate of the region from the Caucasus to Syria, including the Sefidrud border in Azerbaijan, was left to Mohammed Tapar. After the death of Muhammed Tapar in 1118, his younger son Mahmut was brought in.
The weakening of the Seljuk state in the following years weakened the dominance in the Caucasus. After Sultan Kılıçarslan’s death in 1192, his eldest son Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev and Tokat Meliki Rükneddin Süleyman Shah punished the Armenians who took advantage of the internal struggles of the Seljuks and attempted border encroachments. Meanwhile, Georgians, who took advantage of the weakening of the Saltuks in the East, advanced as far as Erzurum. Rükneddin Süleyman Shah, who went on an Eastern campaign, put an end to the Saltuklu State in 1201 and marched on Georgia with the help of the Artuqids and Menguclers. However, it was attacked by the Georgian-Kipchak army near Sarıkamış and was defeated. Rükneddin Süleyman Şah, who later went on the Georgia expedition again, fell ill on the way and died on 6 July 1204.
Thus, the Seljuk sovereignty in the Caucasus also began to disappear. The Caucasus was later subjected to Mongol invasion. The Shirvanshahs Dynasty, which was founded in the 11th century as a branch of the Seljuks, dominated this region after the Mongol invasion. The Shirvanshahs continued their dominance in the region until Timur’s Caucasus expedition. Meanwhile, Sheikh Ibrahim Bin Sultan Mehmet, who was the Shah of Shirvan, was with Timur in many wars. After the Shirvanshahs ruled in the Dagestan region until 1535, it was destroyed by the Safavid State.
Meanwhile, small Turkish khanates and principalities established in various regions of the Caucasus have established some local dominance since the 12th century. However, they could not establish a sovereignty that would cover the entire region.
Golden Horde State
Altınordu, a Turkish-Mongolian state founded in 1241 by Batu Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, with its center of gravity along the Volga River, established the city of Saray in the Lower Volga and made it its center.
Batu Khan took the Lower and Middle Volga regions and the Caucasus and Kipchak steppes up to Khwarezm and Azerbaijan in a short time and added them to the Golden Horde State. After Batu’s death in 1255, his son Sertak Khan succeeded him. Two years later, Batu’s brother Berke Khan took the throne of the Golden Horde. Berke Khan was the first Muslim among the Mongol princes. While the religion of Islam spread rapidly among the Mongols and especially the Kipchak and Kuman Turks in the period of Berke Khan, the Golden Horde Mongols began to become Turkish quickly after they became Muslims. Their language gradually became Turkish.
The internal turmoil that started after Canıbek Khan’s death in 1359 weakened the Golden Horde State. Taking advantage of this situation, the Russians attacked under the command of Dimitry Donskoy and defeated the Golden Horde forces in 1380. The country unity provided by Toktamış Khan, who later came to power, continued until Timur’s campaigns to the Golden Horde in 1395. After the campaign in 1398, Toktamış Khan had to take refuge in the Lithuanian principality. Afterwards, the fights for the throne between the princes divided the country into several parts. In the lands of Altınordu; The Great Golden Horde State (1432-1502), the Astrakhan Khanate (1466-1557), the Kazan Khanate (1445-1552), the Crimean Khanate (1430-1783) and later the Uzbek Khanate were established.
The disintegration of the Golden Horde State benefited the Russians. Lead a semi-wild life in little kinks
The Russians declared their independence in 1481, after escaping the pressure of the powerful Golden Horde forces. The Russians, who also benefited from the rivalries of the states remaining from the Golden Horde, became stronger and eliminated them one by one.
During the Golden Horde period, the cities in the region made great progress due to their location on the European trade route. The population of the capital city of Saray exceeded 100 thousand. The city was destroyed after the war with Timur.
The culture and civilization of the Golden Horde greatly influenced the Russians. In a sense, the army order, currency and tax system of the Russians, which were inherited from the Golden Horde, were taken from the Golden Horde State. In addition, many words in Turkish were transferred to Russian. Meanwhile, the southern and eastern parts of the Caucasus constantly changed hands between the Karakoyunlu, Akkoyunlu and Timurid states from 1410 to 1467. With the defeat of Cihanshah to Akkoyunlu Uzun Hasan in 1467, the Karakoyunlu domination of the Caucasus ended.
The Ottoman Empire, which advanced through Europe to the Crimea, dominated the eastern Sea of Azov in 1475. The Ottomans, who completely controlled the southern parts of Azerbaijan at the beginning of the 16th century, began to rapidly gain population in the Caucasus. The fact that Yavuz Sultan Selim personally took the title of Islamic Caliphate after the Egyptian campaign also played a role in this. Because religiously, all Caucasian Muslims were subordinate to the Caliph.
The Ottoman Empire, which tried to encircle the Caucasus from the north by taking the Crimea within its borders, organized an expedition on Iran, which was effective in the South Caucasus. After the Persian ruler Shah Ismail was defeated by Yavuz Sultan Selim in the Battle of Çaldıran, the Ottoman army actually entered the Caucasus.
The Ottoman State took action to realize the Don-Volga Canal Project in 1568. The aim of this project was to ensure the contact of the Ottoman Empire with the Central Asian Turkish States and to prevent Russia from spreading to Central Asia and the Caucasus. Even Iran could be dominated by the canal. However, the project did not succeed due to the activities of the Russian Tsar to prevent this great project, as well as the negative works of the Crimean Khan Gazi Giray.
The Ottoman Empire conquered Georgia and Dagestan on August 24, 1578. Later, the northern parts of Azerbaijan joined the borders of the Ottoman Empire. The Caucasus, which was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire for a while, came under the administration of Iran due to the Celali Revolts that broke out in Anatolia. Taking advantage of the turmoil in the Caucasus, Russia invaded the cities of Astrakhan and Derbent in 1722 and attacked Iran. In 1724, an agreement was signed between Iran and Russia, which defeated the Iranian forces. According to this agreement; Derbent Fortress, Baku, Geylan, Mazenderan and Esterabad were ceded to Russia. Russia thus descended to the south of the Caucasus and shared the Iranian lands in the region with the Ottoman Empire.
There were wars at various times in the Caucasus between the Ottomans, Russians and Iranians. At the end of the long wars, the Ottomans were defeated and had to sign the Küçük Kaynarca Agreement. According to this agreement, the small and large Kabardians in the north of the Caucasus were left to the Russians. Kutaysi and Shahriban on the Georgian side taken by the Russians to the Ottomans; Other places were given to Georgians. In 1774, the Crimea fell out of hand. The Ottoman Empire declared war against Russia in 1787. But defeated, he signed the Treaty of Yas in 1791. With this treaty, it was decided that the border in the Caucasus would be the Kuban River.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Georgia became a province of Russia. By sending troops to the Caucasus, the Russians occupied most of Dagestan and the Caucasus. It advanced as far as Eastern Anatolia. In the following years, the Russian population continued to increase in the Caucasus.
The Caucasian Muslims, who were depressed as a result of the oppressive and colonial policy of the Russians and could not stand these pressures any longer, declared a general war against Russia. The core of this counter-movement was the Caucasian Avars. Imam Ghazi Muhammad initiated this movement in 1829. This personality, also known as Gazi Molla, encouraged the Caucasian peoples to jihad against the Russians with his effective sermons and speeches. Finally, by issuing a proclamation, he embarked on a de facto struggle against the Russians. After Gazi Muhammed, leaders such as Hamzat Bey, Şeyh Şamil and Hacı Murat continued this struggle. Especially Sheikh Shamil became the most important hero who defended the Caucasus against the Russians. Sheikh Shamil fought against the Russians for 25 years. He established the Islamic Republic organization in the region he dominated. Together with his students, he tried to stop the advance of the Russians. Shamil had to surrender to the Russians in 1859 due to the decrease in his forces and the exhaustion of his weapons and equipment. Finally, the Russians, bloodily suppressing the national struggle movements in the entire Caucasus in 1864, invaded the Caucasus.
dominated me. After that, tens of thousands of Turks and other peoples migrated to Anatolia. The Russian Tsars followed a policy of colonization and Russification throughout the Caucasus. In the late 19th century, nationalist movements against Russian rule expanded. Opposition to the tsarist governments intensified. As a result of this opposition, the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917 took place.
that gives you some research and civilization knowledge uncultured fascist
that gives you some research and civilization knowledge uncultured fascist
bayram the azerbarani sheep
I had a good laugh. I always knew what kind of illiterate, uncultured, uncivilized scum bag I was dealing with. It took you weeks to come up with such gibberish and even then you had to copy and paste such nonsense from some azerbarani fake website. You are not fooling anyone you retard.
Take your nonsense and shove it where the sun don’t shine. We destroyed you once thirty years ago and we can do it again. Without terrorist Turkey you will become our parking lot! Remember, we gave you that special place you buried 37,500 dead azerbarani gay soldiers in 1994 and 30,000 in 2020. We destroyed and humiliated you so bad that you are all suffering from mental illness. We took away what little manhood you had thirty years ago. You don’t have the guts to fight us alone. You will always need your Turkish pimps to do the fighting for you. Pathetic losers!
You will never forget that special gift we gave you. You are a tribe of losers and you will always be losers. Turks are your pimps and you are their prostitutes. Your entire culture is based on bribery and incest. You are not even a nation but a filthy tribe formed our of LIARS and PIGS! In less than a 100 years you will be homeless refugees in terrorist Turkey and in your beloved Russia!
Ararat admit it that it was the overconfidence which led to your downfall big time. The Bayraktar TB2’s destroyed a very large portion of your military hardware which will take at least a decade to recover. You can in the meantime bask on past glories as you usually do.
Face the truth and stop lying. This is 2021 and not 1994 and everything is available online. Watch all the videos before, during and after the 2020 war and you will see that artificial Azerbaijani defense minister is absent in all of them. It is the terrorist Turkish defense minister making threats with his filthy look and language. Why is Turkish defense minister threatening Armenia when Armenia had not made any provocations whatsoever against terrorist Turkey? What were Syrian ISIS doing in karabakh? Hundreds were killed in the battlefield and many captured and confessed to being hired and flown to the war zone. It was also the terrorist Turkish foreign minister who had become the spokesperson for artificial Azerbaijan’s criminal leadership. He was the one in constant contact with chicken-hawk Ilham Aliyev advising him and telling him not to accept any ceasefire. What more evidence do you need to admit the truth that this was not a war between Armenia and artificial Azerbaijan? How about joint military exercises in Nakhijevan, in some cases including terrorist Pakistan, and leaving behind NATO military weapons along with nearly a thousand Turkish troops who were later embedded into artificial Azerbaijani army. Throughout the war you see both the flags of terrorist Turkey and artificial Azerbaijan. Face it, Azerbaranis don’t have what it takes to fight Armenians alone. The April 2016 war was another proof of that. That was only a few years before the 2020 war and they fought with everything they had including military drones. They failed and were repelled in humiliation. What changed in a few years’ time? Terrorist Turkey joined in and did the planning and provocation to start the war with Russian knowledge and it was terrorist Turkish military leadership that conducted and dictated the war. We see terrorist Turkish defense minister all over the place. Stop lying and for once admit the truth.
What the hell do you think this so-called “bayraktar” drone is? It is western technology assembled in terrorist Turkey. You think this is terrorist Turkish made? They don’t have the brain to invent that kind of technology. They buy parts from various western countries, such as Canada and the United States, and assemble them in terrorist Turkey and slap a Turkish label on it. And when we protested against the Canadians they stopped exporting parts to terrorist Turkey and the Turks started their typical hissy fit. Turkish scums have been in NATO since 1952 and all they have done was to get advanced arms from NATO but never create a damn thing. It is easy to fool your illiterate and ignorant population but you can’t fool us. All the news information in both terrorist Turkey and artificial Azerbaijan is under state control. There is widespread censorship and anyone who speaks his mind freely and says things that the state does not approve ends up in jail if not dead.
And another thing. Why do you think terrorist Turkey is the only Muslim country in the world that is in NATO? Because they feared a Soviet invasion post WWII and needed over two dozen other western “Christian” states to defend them against the Soviets. But there was a price of admission to join NATO. So terrorist Turkey sent some troops to the Korean War to get the NATO approval to join in. Ever since, they have used and abused NATO by blackmail because occupied Armenian territory, Western Armenia, in today’s eastern Turkey is used as a NATO base and a buffer zone against the Russians. They constantly complain against NATO but never leave. Why not if they are so powerful? Because they need their advanced weapons to fight off all the enemies they have created through the centuries. If you don’t know these things that does not mean we don’t. We do but it is very painful for you to digest so you start making things up and then get caught! Artificial Azerbaijan, despite all its wealth and resources, will never dare to fight us alone because they don’t have the military competency. That’s where terrorist Turkey comes in. They made so many attempts in thirty years and accomplished nothing on their own. They will always be defeated if they ever dare fight us on their own. They lost over 60% of their armed forces in 1994 and begged for a ceasefire. Agreement to a ceasefire was the biggest mistake our leaders made. I would have wiped them out altogether because I know all about their TRUE deceptive character.
You are really a fascist. You see what you want to see. with the help of mercenaries and those in the diaspora.
At the moment, Armenia has neither military power nor military, it defends the country with gangs.
azerbaijan changed the russian defense system starting from 1995 he received training with the help of turkey’s brother, who is the second army of nato.
people of azerbaijan united either karabag or death prepared for war
azerbaijan army prepared turkey for war and had the most modern war of the 21st century in 2020
The war would have ended earlier in 30 days, but the aim was to make the Armenian army unable to fight again, and they succeeded.
The world ended the war with a magnificent Shusha operation, which has not been seen in the history of war, if the saddle Pashilyan had not surrendered, 15000 Armenian soldiers would have been surrounded and destroyed. if he wanted, azerbaijan would have taken the hankandida 3 km away, then the world would say, azerbaijan civilians are dying, pragobanda was spreading, armenia
Russia came there for 5 years to integrate the Armenians in Hankedi into the Azerbaijani citizenship. for a peaceful transition without conflict.
Now, the Azerbaijani army is the second largest army power and experience after Russia in the Caucasus. It has proven that armenia will not even have the money or the power to even dress its soldiers. Volunteer gangs protect their borders.
now real giants are azerbaijan or armenia , if you have a mind you will see the truth , don’t look so hostile and see what happens if you have a little mind but I think you wouldn’t be such a fascist if you had a mind .
you’re like a total light töreris
You are only looking at prabaganda.
Bu kaynak metin hakkında daha fazla bilgiEk çeviri bilgileri için kaynak metin gerekli
bayram the azerbarani sheep
You have a thick skull and mentally handicapped. You accuse me of seeing what I want to see while you are doing exactly the same thing with bull crap full of your empty imagination. You seem to have trouble reading and analyzing anything we say because you have already decided what we should think and what you say is reality. What you think is full of nonsense far from reality and full of hollow pride and inferiority complex with racist overtone. So this time I decided to break up into pieces and destroy your entire imaginary comment:
1. You call all Armenians fascist.
You don’t even know what the word fascist means because if you did you would be incriminating yourself because the way you talk shows you are the top fascist yourself. Like fascists you are talking down to us as if you have any power when you don’t. You proved my point when you yourself finally mentioned terrorist NATO member Turkey’s role in this war. Thank you for exposing yourself as a LIAR and a racist fabricator that without Turkey you are nothing!
2. You call Armenians from Diaspora as mercenaries.
This shows you don’t even know the meaning of the word mercenary. According to English dictionary the word mercenary means: “A professional soldier hired to serve in a foreign army.” Assuming some Armenians from Diaspora participated in the war, which means they fought for their homeland from where their parents and grandparents were forced out and killed, were they fighting for a foreign army or for their homeland? For the homeland of course. But if an Arab Syrian ISIS Sunni Muslim gang, not even knowing where “karabakh” is, fights for terrorist Shia Muslim Azerbaijani gang for $1500/month then that qualifies for the TRUE definition of paid-mercenaries.
3. You say at the moment Armenia has neither military power nor military.
If that is indeed the case then why is it that with the exception of two towns, Shushi and Hadrut, most of “karabakh” is in Armenian control? Why did you fail here? Because it was preplanned to give Aliyev Shushi so he can play on his ignorant people’s emotions, for Shushi’s cultural values to both sides, and claim FALSE victory to remain in power. You have more problems today than you had before the war. In addition to Armenians, you are also surrounded by your Russian enemy camping out in your backyards with new military bases!
4. You say the war would have taken only 30 days but your aim was to cause enough damage to Armenian army to make them unable to fight again and that you succeeded.
Did you even know what Aliyev said after the war? He said your army had used up over there-quarters of your military capabilities and if you continued the war you would have problems. He also forgot to say that winter was coming and weather would give Armenians a chance to resupply and regroup and reverse the outcome of the war! You did not succeed! You had to stop because of your fears and lack of supplies to sustain the war.
5. Magnificent Shushi operation? This one made me laugh real hard!
Like I said before, the abandonment of Shushi was preplanned between Aliyev and Russia and that’s why when Shushi was abandoned the war came to an abrupt end! You had no “magnificent” Shushi operation because again according to Aliyev you had no or very little resistance from the Armenians in this direction because, as I said, it was preplanned to abandon this town! Your words are hollow and full of misinformation and LIES!
6. You say Russia came to the region there for 5 years to integrate the Armenians in Stepanakert (“Hankedi”) into the Azerbaijani citizenship for a peaceful transition without conflict. I could not stop laughing on this one! Your stupidity knows no bounds!
Russia planned everything in such a way that their occupying military would enter into the region disguised as “peacekeepers” and they succeeded. They say it is easy to get Russians in but very difficult, if not impossible” to kick the out. Russia is building multiple military bases, is already in the process of giving Stepanakert Armenians Russian passports! Is this how a peacekeeping force behaves if they are there only for 5 years? Russia is here to stay. Putin once said: The most tragic event that happened to Russian nation was the collapse and the destruction of the Soviet Union! This statement alone means Putin considers all of the Caucasus as Russian territory. Even if as a joke we assume Russians will leave in 5 years, that would require peaceful coexistence of the two sides and I guarantee that will never happen. Russia is here to stay for a long time! They can double, triple or quadruple, or even more and forever, their stay if they want and there is nothing you can do to force them out. Are you ready with your insignificant and incompetent army, with 30,000 dead and three-quarters of weapons destroyed, to fight against brutal and punishing Russian army with nuclear capability? In the least case in this situation, Russia will arm Armenians to the teeth and play a whole new game on you with liberation of all territories! You have wild imaginations!
7. You say that now the Azerbaijani army is the second largest, powerful and experienced after Russia in the Caucasus. You should really be a comedian!
You are comparing your dysfunctional incompetent army, with 100 to 120 thousand active members before the war, to that of the Russian army of over 2 million when for 30 years before 2020 you could not even do a damn thing against a total of 20,000 Stepanakert Armenian defense force with some volunteers from Armenia? This is hilarious. Russia can wipe you out overnight and you say you are next to Russia in military power? LOL Why was Aliyev pi$$ing in his pants when Iranian army moved its military to the border and started military exercise? You were afraid of the Iranian army and you think you are second next to Russia? You are truly a retard with hollow pride and detached from reality!
I just proved with my detailed and objective analysis that your statements are all hollow and based on emotional nonsense. Keep on dreaming! You will make a great comedian!